IJAM uses a simplified version of Author-Date Chicago Style. The text below is adapted from https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org. More precise information and examples are available at https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide/citation-guide-2.html.

Papers should be written in English. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to ensure that the paper has been proofread and copyedited for language. Manuscripts may be rejected if the language is not acceptable.


In-text citation for a list of up to three authors:

(Armstrong and Malacinski 1989; Beigl 1989; Pickett and White 1985)
(Whittaker 1967, 1975; Wiens 1989a, 1989b)
(Wong 1999, 328; 2000, 475; García 1998, 67)
(Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017)

In-text citation for a list of four authors or more:

(Bay et al. 2017)

IJAM uses hyphens between inclusive numbers.

Example: 17-24



Issue Number with a Month or Season

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1-34.

Issue Number but not a Month or Season

Glass, Jennifer, and Philip Levchak. 2014. “Red States, Blue States, and Divorce: Understanding the Impact of Conservative Protestantism on Regional Variation in Divorce Rates.” American Journal of Sociology 119 (4): 1002-46.

Month or Season but no Issue Number

Gunderson, Alex R., and Manuel Leal. 2015. “Patterns of Thermal Constraint on Ectotherm Activity.” American Naturalist 185 (May): 653-64.

No Issue Number, Month, or Season

Gunderson, Alex R., and Manuel Leal. 2015. “Patterns of Thermal Constraint on Ectotherm Activity.” American Naturalist 185:653-64.

For a French Reference, the Title of the Article and the Journal Title Are Not Capitalized.

Poisson-De Haro, Serge, and Emmanuel Coblence. 2013. “Les sentiers du redressement: une étude comparative d’organisations culturelles en crise.” Revue française de gestion 39 (235): 29-51.


Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. 2015. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Smith, Zadie. 2016. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press.

Titles in a language other than English keeps the language and capital letters of the original title.

Zwirner, Anke. 2012. Finanzierung und Förderung von Kinospielfilmen in Deutschland. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.

Chapter or Part of an Edited Book

Thoreau, Henry David. 2016. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167-95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

Translated Book

Lahiri, Jhumpa. 2016. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.


Manjoo, Farhad. 2017. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

In-text citation: (Manjoo 2017)

Mead, Rebecca. 2017. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.

In-text citation: (Mead 2017, 43)  [if the author refers to a quote on a specific page, here p. 43]

Pai, Tanya. 2017. “The Sticky, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.

In-text citation: (Pai 2017)

Pegoraro, Rob. 2007. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.

In-text citation: (Pegoraro 2007)

Readers’ comments are cited in the text but omitted from a reference list.

In-text citation: (Eduardo B [Los Angeles], March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo 2017)


Kakutani, Michiko. 2016. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.

In-text citation: (Kakutani 2016)



Stamper, Kory. 2017. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.

In-text citation: (Stamper 2017)

Thesis or Dissertation

Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. 2013. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.

In-text citation: (Rutz 2013, 99-100) [if the author refers to a quote on a specific page, here pp. 99-100]

Website Content

Bouman, Katie. 2016. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.

Google. 2017. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.

Social Media Content
  • Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text, as in this example:

Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).

  • If a more formal citation is needed, a reference list entry may be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post.

Chicago Manual of Style. 2015. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.

Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016. https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.

  • Comments can usually be cited in the text, in reference to the related post.

1. Jim, February 16, 2017, comment on Germano, “Futurist Shock,” http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/#comment-3158909472.
2. Stephanos C, February 21, 2017, reply to Jim, http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/#comment-3167173570.